In this article, courtesy of Rajesh Gopidi, we are going to introduce you to a way of dealing with LLDP-based topology discovery in OpenFlow slices, i.e. slices that stand up OVS instances in the nodes and may run their own version of FlowVisor on top of OVS to simulate, for example, a multi-controller environment within the slice.
The proposed solution is implemented as a new command command in Flowvisor which updates the ethertype and destination MAC address parameters used to identify LLDP packets in order to prevent them being “swallowed” by the hardware switches within ExoGENI infrastructure that create links between nodes.
It is very easy to stand up OpenFlow experiments in ExoGENI by using one of the the OVS images available to the experimenters. However, one typical problem all of them face is the inability of OpenFlow controller(s) to discover the topology of switches – OpenVSwitch running inside a node – by sending LLDP packets. This is due to the fact that underlying physical switche(s) that make up the virtual link(s) connecting nodes in the slice absorb them instead of relaying them. This precludes the OpenFlow controllers in the slice from discovering the topology.
One simple work-around for the above problem is to modify the header – ethertype and destination MAC address – of LLDP packets sent out by the OpenFlow controller(s) so that the underlying physical switches don’t recognize them. For example, in Floodlight controller, one can change the header of LLDP packets by modifying the constants TYPE_LLDP and LLDP_STANDARD_DST_MAC_STRING in net.floodlightcontroller.packet.Ethernet.java and net.floodlightcontroller.linkdiscovery.internal.LinkDiscoveryManager files respectively.
While the above work-around can be successfully applied in scenarios where there is only one OpenFlow controller programming the switches in the network. However, consider a case where the network in the slice is virtualized using Flowvisor, and multiple controllers are enabled to program a switch simultaneously. In such scenarios, Flowvisor, which also uses LLDP, will not be able to classify packets with modified LLDP header as LLDP probes. Thus, it nullifies the work around and drops LLDP packets sent by OpenFlow controller(s).
This is where the new command comes in handy. Using the new command one can modify the parameters used by Flowvisor to identify LLDP packets. To update both the ether type and destination MAC address parameters, use the command as shown below:
fvctl update-lldp-header <ether type in hex> <destination MAC address>
After modifying the LLDP parameters as shown above, the OpenFlow controller is able to discover the links in the topology using LLDP packets, as shown in the figures below:
To make this work you will need to install the updated flowvisor into your slice. The code for the flowvisor that has these new options can be found in github. Export to zip, download and install by following the instructions in the INSTALL file.